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Reducing the prevalence of obesity may add up to half the new cases of type 2 diabetes in the United States, according to new research published today in the Journal of the American Heart Association, an open access journal of the American Heart Association prevent. Obesity is a major contributor to diabetes, and the new study suggests that tailored efforts are needed to reduce the incidence of obesity-related diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, affecting more than 31 million Americans, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The risk factors for type 2 diabetes are being overweight or obese; be over 45 years old; have an immediate family member diagnosed with type 2 diabetes; be physically active less than 3 times a week; or a history of gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy). Type 2 diabetes is more common in people who are Black, Hispanic or Latino, Native American, Alaskan native, Pacific islanders, or Asian Americans.

The number of deaths from type 2 diabetes in people younger than 65 is increasing, along with serious complications from the condition, including amputations and hospitalizations. In addition, type 2 diabetes affects heart disease and the risk of stroke: Adults with type 2 diabetes are twice as likely to have a heart attack or stroke than people without diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed by making healthy lifestyle changes such as weight loss, eating a healthy diet, and exercising. According to the National Diabetes Prevention Program, behavior changes have been shown to help people with prediabetes lose 5 to 7% of their body weight and reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 58% (71% in people over 60 years of age). . The researchers looked at the prevalence and excessive risk of type 2 diabetes related to obesity.

“Our study highlights the significant impact obesity reduction could have on the prevention of type 2 diabetes in the US. Obesity reduction must be a priority. Public health efforts that support healthy lifestyles, such as improving access to nutritious foods, promoting physical activity and developing community obesity prevention programs could significantly reduce new cases of type 2 diabetes, “says lead study’s lead author Dr. Natalie A. Cameron, a resident internal medicine doctor at Northwestern University’s McGaw Medical Center in Chicago.

The researchers used information from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and four pooled cycles (2001-2016) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). MESA is an ongoing longitudinal study of 45 to 84 year olds who had no cardiovascular disease at the time of recruitment. The MESA data included in this study was collected during five visits from 2000 to 2017 to six centers in the United States. NHANES is a cross-sectional study of the American population conducted every two years using patient questionnaires and research data.

For this analysis, the authors limited the data to participants aged 45 to 79 years. They only included those who were not Hispanic White, Not Hispanic Black, or Mexican-American and who had neither Type 1 nor Type 2 diabetes at the start of the study. The researchers calculated both the prevalence of obesity and the excessive risk of type 2 diabetes associated with obesity.

The results of the study include:

  • The overall obesity prevalence among NHANES participants rose from 34% to 41% and was consistently higher in adults with type 2 diabetes.
  • Among MESA participants
    • About one in ten (11.6%) developed type 2 diabetes after nine years.
    • People with obesity were almost three times as likely to develop type 2 diabetes as people without obesity (20% versus 7.3%).
  • Both in the MESA and in the NHANES group:
    • Obesity was associated with the development of type 2 diabetes in 30-53% of cases.
    • A greater proportion of obese participants had an annual family income of less than $ 50,000 and were more likely not to be Hispanic Black or Mexican American.
    • Obesity prevalence was lowest among non-Hispanic white women. However, this group had the highest obesity-related type 2 diabetes.

“Our study confirms that obesity is more common in non-Hispanic black adults and Mexican-American adults than in non-Hispanic white adults. We suspect that these differences indicate important social determinants of health that are contributing to new type 2 cases Diabetes in addition to obesity, “says Cameron.

“In addition, the obesity epidemic has collided with the COVID-19 pandemic,” says Dr. med. Sadiya S. Khan, senior study author and assistant professor of medicine and preventive medicine at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine. “The greater severity of COVID-19 infection in obese people is of concern in the years to come, given the growing burden of adverse health effects. Therefore, further efforts are needed to encourage more adults to lead healthier lifestyles and, hopefully, reduce the prevalence of Obesity. “

This analysis included only older, middle-aged adults with no cardiovascular disease who were not Hispanic White, Not Hispanic Black, or Mexican American, so the results may not generalize to the entire US population. Future research is needed to assess the burden of obesity in new cases of type 2 diabetes in other age groups, as well as in racial and ethnic groups.

The prevalence of diabetes varies by race and ethnicity. Provided by the American Heart Association

Quote: Obesity contributes to up to half of all new diabetes cases in the US annually (2021, February 10), reported on February 10, 2021 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-02-obesity-contributes-diabetes- cases-annual .html

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